Weeds of the Redlands

Weeds of the Redlands - Crofton weed

Crofton Weed

Ageratina adenophora

Erect, perennial herb to 1m with woody roots. Leaves opposite, trowel-shaped, bright green, 5–8cm long, 2–5cm wide with toothed edges. White flowers in small dense clusters at ends of branches in spring. Seeds slender, angular, 2mm long, almost black, fine white hairs at tip. Colonises forest margins, stream banks and disturbed areas, preferring shaded wetter areas.

Weeds of the Redlands - Mistflower

Mistflower

Ageratina riparia

Sprawling, perennial herb to 60cm. Numerous branching stems produce roots at ground level. Leaves opposite, to 8cm long and 2.5cm wide, toothed edges. Flowers white, small dense clusters at ends of branches in winter. Seeds slender, angular, 2mm long, black, fine white hairs at tip. Grows on damp hillsides and creek banks and rapidly invades disturbed areas.


Weeds of the Redlands - Blue Billygoast Weed

Blue Billygoat Weed

Ageratina houstonianum

Herbaceous plant to 50cm, distinct clusters of small blue-purple flowers most of the year. Leaves serrated, leaves and stems covered in short hairs. Common weed in disturbed areas such as grazing land, roadsides, drainage lines, creeklines and outer edges of bushland.

Weeds of the Redlands - Coral Creeper

Coral Creeper

Baleria repens

Creeping or scrambling, shrubby plant, usually less than 70cm, bright red tubular flowers. Spreads by seed and vegetatively. Emerging weed in the area, forms dense infestations in bushland understory, will potentially infest waterways. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Cobblers Pegs

Cobblers Pegs

Bidens pilosa

Upright herbaceous plant to 1m. Produces lots of seeds, each with two barbs that attach to clothing and fur on contact. Leaves serrated. Small yellow flowering heads. Invades parks, outer edges of bushland, gardens, revegetation sites, grazing land and degraded areas.

Weeds of the Redlands - Para Grass

Para Grass

Brachiaria mutica

Perennial grass up to 1.5m. Robust, hollow stems, prostrate growth habit sprouting new roots wherever nodes touch ground. End of stems erect. Leaves hairy, dark green, up to 15cm long and 1cm wide, tapering to long, fine point. Leaf sheaths hairy where they join stem. Flower heads to 18cm long, composed of several spikes about 5cm long. Thrives on creek banks and in wetlands.

Weeds of the Redlands - Mother of Millions

Mother of Millions

Bryophyllum delagoense

Succulent, perennial herbs with fleshy stems and leaves. Flowers orange, yellow or red, on stalks held above the foliage. Plantlets may form on parent plant or regrowth may occur from tiny leaves or stems on ground. Numerous seeds. Spread by humans and water.

Weeds of the Redlands - Rhodes grass

Rhodes Grass

Chloris gayana

Tufted, upright grass growing to 1.5m. Flower head a cluster of 6-18 spikes. Produces masses of seeds, spreads by runners and vegetatively. A pasture grass that has spread to disturbed areas, roadsides and the outer edges of bushland.

Weeds of the Redlands - Columbian Waxweed

Columbian Waxweed

Cuphea carthagenensis

Upright or spreading herbaceous plant to 45cm. Found in moist and often disturbed sites. Green or reddish stems, covered densely in sticky hairs. Leaves small, 1-6cm long, oval shaped,  pointed tips. Flowers grow from leaf forks or tips of branches. Green or reddish tube at base of flower, six pink or purple petals. Spreads from seed only. 

Weeds of the Redlands - African Love Grass

Photo: Tony Rodd

African Love Grass

Eragrostis curvula

Tufted grass up to 1.2m, narrow hairless leaves, 25-35cm long and 3mm wide, distinct parallel veins. Seed heads up to 30cm long. Seeds with herringbone feature.  Can form dense monocultures. Spread by slashing and transportation of machinery and motor vehicles. Seeds still viable if eaten by livestock. Often found alongside roadsides, railway lines and spreading into pastures. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Polka-Dot Plant

Polka Dot Plant

Hypoestes phyllostachya

Small, shade-tolerant perennial herb to about 0.5m. Numerous cultivars display different foliage colours and patterns. Typically soft green leaves with white to pink spots or mottled patterns. Small, lavender blue flowers in summer.

Weeds of the Redlands - Balsam

Balsam

Impatiens spp.

Annual herb to 60cm. Stems erect, succulent, thick. Leaves ovate, serrated with pointed tip. Brightly coloured flowers in spring, colour between pink, purplish pink, red or rose. Can regrow from stem with node, also spread by seed. Grows in moist, shady areas, particularly invasive along creeks. Spread as dumped garden waste and by water.

Weeds of the Redlands - Creeping Lantana

Creeping Lantana

Lantana montevidensis

Perennial, sprawling, up to 25cm tall. Thin wiry stems. Leaves in opposite pairs, dark green, 2–3cm long, oval with finely- serrated margins, strong-smelling when crushed. Flowers small, purple with yellow or white centre in symmetrical clusters. Small purplish to black berries in autumn. Often spread by dumping of garden waste or seed, can invade understorey of open forest and woodland, surviving on dry ridge tops and slopes with shallow, stony soils.

Weeds of the Redlands - Guinea Grasss

Guinea Grass

Megathyrsus maximus

Tall, perennial grass, forms large clumps, up to 1.5m. Leaf blades long, narrow, pointed tips. Seed heads large, branched to 40cm in size. Seeds oblong shaped, purple. Introduced for fodder, common in disturbed areas.

Weeds of the Redlands - Molasses Grass

Molasses Grass

Melinis minutiflora

Spreading, densely smothering perennial mat grass. Stems branched, up to 90cm long. Foliage usually sticky, with strong odour resembling molasses. Slender flower heads, in winter, 10–20cm long,  purplish in colour when young. Grows thickly from rooted runners. Spreads from disturbed areas adjacent to native forest e.g. roads and tracks. Highly flammable, recovers rapidly from fire, colonises burnt areas at expense of native vegetation. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Red Natal Grass

Red Natal Grass

Melinis repens

Opened tussock grass, upright flower stems, to 1m tall. Young seed heads red, turn pale as they mature. Leaf blades to 30cm long and to 1cm wide, may be folded or flat. Light, fluffy seeds, often wind dispersed or spread by contaminated clothes, vehicles or animals.

Weeds of the Redlands - Fishbone Fern

Fishbone Fern

Nephrolepis cordifolia

Wiry, scaly stems branch and spread over ground with fleshy tubers. Can grow densely and expand rapidly to dominate ground surface. Fronds erect or arching to 75cm long. Spread by dumping garden waste and by spores carried by wind or water. NOTE: Where fishbone fern appears to be growing naturally in undisturbed bushland and  is not apparently a garden escapee it should not be removed.

Weeds of the Redlands - Broad-Leafed Paspalum

Broad-leafed Paspalum

Paspalum mandiocanum

Tough, clump-forming perennial to 1m,  leaves to 15mm wide. Seed head on terminal stalks, up to 10 thin, finger-like spikes carrying many seeds in summer. Spikes grow horizontally outwards from stalk. Seeds sticky, spread by disturbance such as mowing or slashing and via birds. Other paspalum species are also weedy.

Weeds of the Redlands - Elephant grass

Elephant Grass

Pennisetum purpureum and P. purpureum x typhoides 

Tufted perennial grasses growing to 4m, resembling sugar cane in appearance. Pale green leaves up to 4cm in width, strong mid-rib tapering to a fine point. Flower heads up to 30cm in length, colour from yellow to purple. Forms bamboo-like, densely tufted clumps on creek banks and roadsides.

Weeds of the Redlands - Mother-in-law tongue

Mother-in-law Tongue

Sansevieria trifasciata

Dense, clumping groundcover preferring moist, shady sites. Long, succulent, mottled greenish-yellow leaves to 1m. Often spread by garden dumping, can be difficult to eradicate once established.

Weeds of the Redlands - Fireweed

Fireweed

Senecio madagascariensis

Annual to biennial herb up to 50cm, branched stems. Mostly found on disturbed farmland. Flowers daisy-like, bright yellow. Seeds white, fluffy, dispersed by wind.

NOTE: Can be poisonous to livestock, particularly cattle and horses.

Weeds of the Redlands - South African Pigeon Grass

South African Pigeon Grass

Setaria sphacelata

Tufted perennial grass to 1.8m. Commonly found bordering waterways and in damp areas. Inflorescence spike-like up to 25cm long. Leaves bluish-green up to 2cm wide.

Weeds of the Redlands - Singapore Daisy

Singapore Daisy

Sphagneticola trilobata

Forms dense mats of runners on ground surface, smothers native plants. Leaves glossy, notched, somewhat fleshy, often lobed. Flowers bright yellow. Able to reproduce by small seeds, more likely to grow from section of stem or root. Spread by humans and water.

Weeds of the Redlands - Wandering Jew

Wandering Jew

Tradascantia albiflora and T. zebrina

Succulent, perennial creepers. Tradascantia albiflora leaves glossy, somewhat fleshy, up to 2.5cm long, parallel veins, fine hairs along leaf margin. Flowers white, three petals. T. zebrina leaves larger, up to 6cm, silvery white stripes on leaf surface, purple underneath. Flowers pink to purple. Both commonly spread by garden waste.

Weeds of the Redlands - Trad

Trad

Tradescantia fluminensis

Ground cover succulent. Dark green, shiny leaves, 5 -10mm long  and 1-3cm wide, parallel veins, covered with small hairs. Small white flowers, three petals, yellow tipped stamens. Spreads vegetatively, sends out roots at each nodal point. Can establish itself like a thick carpet in shady moist forest floor.

Weeds of the Redlands - Chinese burr

Chinese Burr

Triumfetta rhomboidea

Erect shrub with hairy stems to 1-2m. Leaves rhomboid-ovate  shape, to 7cm long and 6 cm wide, strong odour when crushed.  Hairs on both sides of leaf, more numerous on lower surface. Small, yellow, umbel-like flowers, often in clusters of three. Capsules with microscopic hook at end, adhere to clothing and animal fur enhancing its distribution.

Weeds of the Redlands - hairy water hyssop

Hairy Water Hyssop

Bacopa lanigera

Creeping aquatic plant, forms very dense mats in mud or under shallow water.  Stems densely covered in spreading hairs. Small, rounded, glossy green leaves, in pairs along stems. Single, small, bluish-purple flowers in leaf forks. Stems produce roots when in contact with soil. Reproduces by seed or pieces of stem.  Sometimes grown as aquarium plant and becoming established in wetter sites along coastal eastern Australia.

Weeds of the Redlands - Cabomba

Cabomba

Cabomba caroliniana

Fully submerged aquatic plant, stems up to 10m long. Generally grows in 1-3m of water. Submerged leaves repeatedly divided to form feathery, fan-shaped structures. Small white flowers produced above water surface. Aggressive invader, can fill entire water column of small water bodies. Dramatically increases treatment costs and reduces recreation activities in water storages.

Weeds of the Redlands - Dense waterweed

Dense Waterweed

Egeria densa

Fully submerged aquatic plant, stems to 1.5m long. Firmly attached to sediment. Leaves up to 4cm long,  tiny serrations on margins, whorls of four or five (sometimes up to eight). Flowers 2cm, three white petals. Easily dispersed from broken stem pieces. Thrives in slow-flowing, shallow water with high nutrients. Forms extremely dense, submerged masses that impede water flow.

Weeds of the Redlands - water hyacinth

Water Hyacinth

Eichhornia crassipes

Floating perennial, aquatic herb. Leaves shiny, glossy green, rounded, waxy. Spongy leaf stalks 5–20cm long, dense clusters. Flowers blue to mauve, showy, 3–4cm long on spikes 50cm long, 3–15 flowers per spike. Fruits three-celled capsules. Roots black, fibrous. Found in stagnant or slow-moving water bodies, preferring nutrient-enriched water. Escaped from ornamental ponds. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Senegal Tea

Senegal Tea

Gymnocoronis spilathoides

Perennial herb, creeping underground stems or rhizomes. Stems ribbed, hollow between joints. Leaves opposite, variable in shape. Flower heads ball-like, white, at end of leafy branches. Grows in still or slow flowing creek lines, reproduces from seed and stem fragments. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Kidneyleaf mud-plantain

Kidneyleaf Mud-plantain

Heteranthera reniformis

Aquatic plant, forms very dense mats in shallow water or mud. Stems submerged or floating, emerge 10-30cm above the water surface. Stems root when in contact with soil. Small rounded or kidney shaped leaves. Very small white to pale blue flowers (open for only three hours after sunrise). Popular ornamental pond plant, with escaped plants established in natural wet areas. Reproduces by seed and plant fragments.

Weeds of the Redlands - Amazon Frogbit

Amazon Frogbit

Limnobium laevigatum

Floating aquatic plant, rosettes of floating leaves lying flat on water surface. Runners form juvenile plants, building dense mats. Small white flowers. Juvenile leaves spongy on underside. Sold as aquarium and pond plant. Reproduces by seed and plant fragments.

Weeds of the Redlands - Madeira Vine

Madeira Vine

Anredera cordifolia

Vigorous climber up to 30m. Stems slender, climbing, becoming softly woody with age. Mature stems produce aerial tubers, main way of reproduction. Leaves fleshy, broadly egg shaped, tips rounded or shallowly-indented, base lobed. Flowers cream-coloured, numerous, in drooping clusters, up to 20cm long, short-lived. Rarely fruits. Mainly spread by humans and water, possibly also by animals. NOTE: It is recommended you consult the websites listed in this booklet or get expert advice before attempting to control this weed as inappropriate control methods can make the infestation worse.

Weeds of the Redlands - Dutchmans Pipe

Dutchmans Pipe

Aristolochia spp.

Photo: Steve and Alison Pearson

Fast growing, twining vine. Heart shaped glossy leaves up to 75mm long. Distinctive 'Dutchmans pipe' shaped flower, reddish purple. Detrimental to native butterflies that mistake plant as host plant, leaves poisonous to larvae. NOTE: Particularly concerning for Richmond Birdwing Butterfly which is a threatened species.

Weeds of the Redlands - Climbing Asparagus

Photo: Heidemarie Niemann

Climbing Asparagus

Asparagus africanus

Perennial twining climber, scattered spines on stems. Branches more or less horizontal. Similar to Feathered Asparagus (Asparagus plumosus). ‘Leaves’ (actually short stems called cladodes) to 0.7cm long. Small green-white flowers on tips of branches followed by berries about 0.5cm across, blue-black and ripe in autumn/winter. Roots (rhizomes) fibrous and fleshy. Spread by birds and humans.

Weeds of the Redlands - Asparagus fern

Asparagus fern

Asparagus scandens

Perennial climbing vine. Cladodes (leaf-like structure) broader than other species of Asparagus fern, dark green, 0.5-1.5mm wide and 5-15mm long, pointed at tip.  Small white or pink single flowers, yellow anthers. Fleshy, egg-shaped berries, green changing to orange and red with maturity.  Flowers and fruits in late winter and early spring. Spreads through underground tubers and rhizome.

Weeds of the Redlands

Balloon Vine

Cardiospermum grandiflorum

Perennial climber to 10m or more. Stems hairy, green with ribs often streaked red, becoming thick and woody with age. Leaves divided into nine leaflets arranged in groups of three. Leaflets soft, hairy, clearly- veined, with broadly toothed edges. Flowers small, four petals, white in clusters. Fruit a papery green capsule maturing to light brown in autumn.

Weeds of the Redlands - Velcro vine

Velcro Vine

Desmodium uncinatum

Perennial, scrambling leguminous vine, deep tap root and thick stems, rooting at nodes. Leaflets egg-shaped, covered in fine hairs, pale silver stripe along mid-rib. Flowers pink, mauve or blue up to 1cm long, usually appearing in early autumn. Brown seed pods with fine velcro-like hooked hairs, attach to clothing or animals.

Weeds of the Redlands - Moonflower

Moonflower

Ipomoea alba

Vigorous, climbing vine, twining stems. Leaves large, heart-shaped. Flowers white, trumpet shaped, open at night. Fruit capsules small and round, pointed tip darkens, splits into four sections with maturity. Spread by seed or vegetatively via production of roots along stems that creep along ground.

Weeds of the Redlands - Mile-a-minute

Mile-a-minute

Ipomoea cairica

Perennial trailing or climbing vine to 5m. Stems hairless, readily set roots when in touch with earth. Leaves hairless to 9cm long, five to seven lobes, middle lobe largest. Flowers purple, pink or whitish pink, to 8cm across, solitary or in groups of two to three. Fruit a four-valved capsule, about 1cm across, each valve with one seed. Seed with wispy hairs attached. Spread by wind, water and humans.

Weeds of the Redlands - Morning Glory

Morning Glory

Ipomoea indica

Vigorous, perennial climber to 15m. Stems twining. Flowers blue, purple or violet up to 8cm across, grouped together, sepals up to 1.5cm long. Leaves broadly egg shaped, smooth or three-lobed edges. Stems readily set new roots even from small segments. Mainly spread by human activities.

Weeds of the Redlands - Japanese Honeysuckle

Japanese Honeysuckle

Lonicera japonica

Robust twining vine, woody stems, up to 2.5m. Leaves in opposite pairs, 3.5cm wide and 7.5cm long. Cream, white or yellow tubular flowers with strong fragrance. Small, round, black-blue, shiny berries. Invasive to bushland, smothers native vegetation. Spread by birds, water, tractors and dumped green waste.

Weeds of the Redlands - Cat's Claw Creeper

Cat's Claw Creeper

Macfadyena unguis-cati

Tuberous perennial climber to over 30m. Stems red-brown, ageing to green then becoming woody, to 15cm thick. Leaves divided into three, tip leaflet forms a small, three–clawed tendril. Other leaflets to 8cm, red-brown ageing to dark green above and paler below. Flowers single or small clusters, yellow, trumpet-like, to 8cm, five petals. Thin capsule fruit to 45cm, green, ripening to brown in summer, winged seeds. Tuberous, deep, extensive roots dispersed by floods and humans. Seeds dispersed by wind and water.

Weeds of the Redlands - Siratro

Siratro

Macroptilium atropurpureum

Creeping or climbing legume. Bright green leaflets grouped in threes, two lower leaflets often with rounded lobe. ‘Sweet pea- like’ dark red purple flowers,  on long spikes most of the year, followed by narrow pods 5–10cm long. Smothers native vegetation adjoining disturbed areas and disused pastures.

Weeds of the Redlands - Glycine

Glycine

Neonotonia wightii

Vigorous, twining, perennial vine, woody base. Leaves consist of three leaflets, dark green, broadly egg-shaped. Prolific, bean-like seed pods, up to 3.5cm long, rectangular-shaped seeds. Inconspicuous, creamy flowers in late autumn. Smothers native trees and understorey vegetation.

Weeds of the Redlands - Corky Passionflower

Corky Passionflower

Passiflora suberosa

Slender vine with tendrils, raised glands in middle of leaf stalks, scattered along them or not present. Leaves three-lobed, leaf tips of White Passionflower more rounded. Corky Passionflower: green stems, corky with age, small white to greenish flowers, 1.5cm black berry.

Weeds of the Redlands - White Passionflower

White Passionflower

Passiflora subpeltata

White Passionflower: larger flowers, about 5cm across, tinged green, inedible fruit about 4cm long. Spread by dumping, birds, animals, water and gravity. NOTE: The native passionfruit has two raised glands on the leaf stalk very close to the base of the leaf.

Weeds of the Redlands - Kudzu

Kudzu

Pueraria lobata

Vigorous trailing or twining perennial herb, large tuber. One vine may cover a vast area. Stems hairy, up to 3m long. Large leaves divided into three leaflets, leaflets often lobed, upper surface green, greyish under. Flowers purple, blue or pink, up to 90 per stem in summer. Fruit a hairy pod to 9cm long. Mostly spread by humans.

Weeds of the Redlands - Climbing Nightshade

Climbing Nightshade

Solanum seaforthianum

Perennial twining climber, stems mostly hairless. Leaves deeply lobed, hairless except edges and veins on underside. Flowers mauve-blue, 2–3cm across, in groups of up to 50 in spring and autumn. Fruit a bright red berry about 1cm across. Seeds spread by birds and water.

Weeds of the Redlands - Arrowhead Vine

Arrowhead Vine

Syngonium podophyllum

Climbing or creeping vine. Leaves arrow shaped, alternate. Mature leaves often with three lobes, white and green or just green. Juvenile leaves entire. Flower spikes in leaf axil, six to nine tubular flowers surrounded by a white spathe. Fruit red to reddish orange, numerous bown-black seeds in grey pulp. Plant spread by cultivation or dumping. NOTE: Plants are poisonous.

Weeds of the Redlands - Black-eyed Susan

Black-eyed Susan

Thunbergia alata

Herbaceous perennial twiner. Leaves three-pointed, triangular or shaped like an arrow head to 7cm long, leaf stalks to 4cm. Flowers singly on stalks, to 6cm long, orange or yellow, usually with black centre. Fruit a hairy capsule with few small seeds. Mainly spread by humans through garden escapees and dumping.

Weeds of the Redlands - Chinese Celtis

Chinese Celtis

Celtis sinensis

Large, semi-deciduous tree to 20m. Stems smooth, light grey with prominent lenticels (small corky spots). Leaves to 8cm long, dark green above, paler below. Upper leaf edge coarsely toothed, leaf bases uneven. Flowers tiny, greenish, in spring/summer. Fruit about 0.5cm, green ageing to orange-red in summer/autumn. Spread mainly by birds and water.

Weeds of the Redlands - Camphor Laurel

Camphor Laurel

Cinnamomum camphora

Large spreading tree to 20m. Bark greyish, prominent vertical cracks on trunk. Young leaves and stems with reddish tinge. Mature leaves green above, dull green below, strong camphor scent when crushed. Small pale flowers. Fruit 1cm berry, green, ageing to black. Seed spread by birds, other animals and humans.

Weeds of the Redlands - Cadaghi

Cadaghi

Corymbia torelliana

Evergreen tree to 30m. ‘Stocking’ of grey scaly bark at base of trunk, smooth pale green bark above. Leaves pale green, sometimes with a pink tinge, shape variable, wavy edges to 16cm long. Flowers in masses of scented, cream-coloured balls. Fruit almost round, woody capsule, many tiny seeds. Mainly spread by humans and wind.

Weeds of the Redlands - Coral Tree

Coral Tree

Erythrina indica, E. crista galli and Erythrina x sykesii

Thorny deciduous tree, bright red flowers. Has the ability to spread by suckering or from broken off pieces (the wood is soft) of trunk or branches. Leaves bright green consisting of three large leaflets, central one on a longer stalk. Thrives on disturbance and spread by dumping and suckering.

Weeds of the Redlands - Golden Rain Tree

Golden Rain Tree

Koelreuteria elegans subsp. formosana

Hardy, fast growing deciduous tree to 25m tall. Leaves compound, bipinnate, leaflets with toothed edges, pointed tips. Flowers yellow, occurring in clusters at end of branches. Fruit papery with three chambers, pink to rose. Seed dispersed by wind. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Slash Pine

Slash Pine

Pinus elliottii

Evergreen, resinous and aromatic tree to 50m. Leaves 20–30cm long, needle-like in bundles, female cones lopsided.

Weeds of the Redlands - Castor Oil Plant

Castor Oil Plant

Ricinus communis

Tall branching shrub or small tree to 6m.  Hollow branches pale green or red when young, grey when older. Very large leaves, seven to nine pointed triangle segments, toothed edges. Round fruit covered in soft spines, explodes when ripe. Abundant along waterways, disturbed sites and roadsides. NOTE: Seeds and leaves poisonous to humans and livestock, contain ricin. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Umbrella Tree

Umbrella Tree

Schefflera  actinophylla

Tree to 10m, often multi-stemmed. Leaves compound, stalks up to 40cm long. Leaflets arranged umbrella-like (palmately), up to 30cm long. Small red flowers in sprays above foliage. Fruit dark red to 0.5cm long, a single seed. Seeds readily spread by birds and humans.

Weeds of the Redlands - Broad-leaf Pepper Tree

Broad-leaf Pepper Tree

Schinus terebinthifolius

Tree to 10m, short trunk, many branches. Stems pink-brown, hairy, with lenticels (small corky spots). Leaves compound,  small ‘wing’ along leaf stalk. Leaflets to 8cm long, mid to yellow-green, sometimes red-tinged, pepper aroma when crushed. Flowers small, five petals, cream to white in clusters at ends of branches. Fruit many, round, green berries, ripening to orange/red, about 0.5cm across. Spread by birds, water and humans. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Giant Devil's Fig

Giant Devils Fig

Solanum chrysotrichum

Shrub or small tree to 6m.  Young stems green , covered with hairs and sparse prickles.  Older stems grey and covered in large thorns. Large broad leaves, several deep rounded or pointed lobes.  Adult leaves prickles on underside, none on top side. Clusters of white star shaped flowers.  Fruit round, green, matures to yellow-orange.  Spread by birds.  Found mostly along waterways and in disturbed sites.  

Weeds of the Redlands - African Tulip Tree

African Tulip Tree

Spathodea campanulata

Evergreen tree to 25m. Bark rough and greenish-grey. Leaves glossy green, seven to 19 oval leaflets. Flowers scarlet, fringed with yellow, bell-shaped. Fruit a long, woody capsule. Spreads by suckering and seed. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Cocos Palm

Cocos Palm

Syagrus romanzoffianum

Fast-growing tree to 21m, sturdy ridged trunk. Leaves green to 4.5m long with long, strappy leaflets radiating from  central leaf stem. Flowers small,  inconspicuous. Fruit a fleshy orange berry up to 2.5cm long. Spread by humans, flying foxes, birds and other animals. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Annual Ragweed

Annual Ragweed

Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Fast growing erect shrub, 1-2m. Leaves 2-3cm long, hairy underside, shortly stalked, opposite at base and alternate at top. Flowers green, inconspicuous. Seeds small, black. Spreads via floodwater, in contaminated fodder or topsoil. NOTE: Pollen from this plant contains highly potent allergens that can cause respiratory allergies such as hay fever or agravated asthma.

Weeds of the Redlands - Coral Berry

Coral Berry

Ardisia crenata

Compact shrub to 1m, often multi-stemmed. Leaves dark green, thick and glossy, tightly waved edges. Flowers small, white or reddish, fragrant and in clusters. Fruit round, glossy red. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Shoe-button Ardisia

Shoe-button Ardisia

Ardisia elliptica

Shrub or small tree to 4m. Leaves dull, gland dotted below. New foliage pink to red. Flowers in clusters, pink to white. Fruit round, maturing from pink to dark purple. Fruit dispersed by birds and mammals.

Weeds of the Redlands - Groundsel Bush

Groundsel Bush

Baccharis halimifolia

Perennial shrub to 4m. Densely branched. Leaves dull or pale green, alternate, wedge-shaped and lobed in upper part, 2.5–5cm long. Flowers male (yellow, globular) and female (white florets at end of branches)  present on different plants, 6mm across and numerous. Fruit straw-coloured or brown, ribbed, 3mm long, topped by tufts of fluffy white hair, readily wind-dispersed. Flowers in autumn. Spread by animals, water, vehicles, machinery and wind

Weeds of the Redlands - Green cestrum

Green Cestrum

Cestrum parqui

Erect, perennial shrub to 3m. Leaves alternate, to 12cm long and 2.5cm wide, unpleasant smelling when crushed. Flowers yellow, tubular, occur in clusters at end of stem. Fruit egg shaped, black with maturity. Spread by birds. NOTE: Can be toxic to animals including sheep, horses, pigs, poultry but especially cattle. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Duranta

Duranta

Duranta erecta

Shrub or small tree, drooping, occasionally spiny branches. Leaves in pairs or threes, oval, occasionally toothed, to 8cm long, short leaf stalk. Flowers blue or pale purple, often with two darker stripes, trumpet shaped, in clusters in summer/autumn. Fruit rounded, orange or yellow, about 1cm across, in large clusters. Colonises densely forested areas, especially near waterways. Spread by humans and birds.

Weeds of the Redlands - Brazilian Cherry

Brazilian Cherry

Eugenia uniflora

Evergreen shrub or small tree to 8m. Stems brown, new growth reddish. Leaves usually in pairs, bases rounded, dark green, glossy, aromatic, to 5cm long. Flowers four petals, white, solitary about 1cm across, in early spring and summer/autumn. Fruit a deep crimson berry, about 2cm across. Spread by birds, animals, water and humans. 

Weeds of the Redlands - White Shrimp Plant

White Shrimp Plant

Justicia betonica

Evergreen perennial shrub to 1-2m tall and wide.  Leaves opposite, up to 14cm long , stems with purple tinge. Flowers held in spikes, pink to white. Small, club-shaped orange seed capsules, 2mm wide. Found in and around waterways, seeds spread by wind, water and animals. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Lantana

Lantana

Lantana camara

Scrambling evergreen, thicket-forming shrub to 4m. Stems woody, prickly and often four-sided. Leaves coarse, veins prominent, margins serrated, finely haired, strongly scented. Flowers in combinations of pink, yellow and cream. Fruit round to 0.8cm across, green maturing to shiny black in clusters. Roots shallow. Spread by birds, animals, water and humans. NOTE: Hybrid varieties of lantana have been promoted as ornamentals including so-called ‘sterile varieties’. All forms of lantana are considered   
environmental weeds and should not be planted. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Coffee Bush

Coffee Bush

Leucaena leucocephala

Fast growing shrub to 6m. Leaves 25cm long and bipinnate, dull greyish-green leaflets. Flowers yellow, on short stalks.  Fruit in flattened pods, up to 15cm long, in clusters. Pods with about 20 flat glossy brown seeds, expelled when ripe. Spread by cattle, wind, water, and machinery.

Weeds of the Redlands - Privet

Privet

Ligustrum sinense

Shrub up to 4m or more if supported. Leaves in pairs, variable in size and shape, to 7cm long, short hairs on veins and stalks of young leaves. Flowers small, white with four petals, heavily scented, in masses. Fruit oval berry to 0.6cm across, in dense clusters, green maturing to purple-black in winter. Spread by birds, animals and humans. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Mock Orange

Mock Orange

Murraya paniculata

Evergreen shrub or small tree to 4m. Leaves compound, leaflets to 6cm long. New growth pale green, mature leaves dark above, paler below. Flower white, about 2cm across, strongly scented. Fruit a berry, about 1cm across, green, ageing to yellow, orange or red. Seeds two per fruit, high germination rate. Spread by birds. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Ochna

Ochna

Ochna serrulata

Shrub to 3m. Bark on branches has numerous lenticels (small corky spots). Leaves to 6cm long, edges toothed and often wavy. Short leaf stalk. Flowers yellow, petals each 1cm long. After flowering sepals turn red as fruit develops. Fruit black, glossy, single-seeded. Seeds germinate readily in deep shade. Coppices (reshoots) readily when cut if not treated. Spread mainly by birds and humans. 

Weeds of the Redlands - Indian Hawthorn

Indian Hawthorn

Raphiolepis indica

An evergreen, woody shrub to 2m tall. Leaves 5-10cm long, thick, leathery, margins toothed or serrated. Flowers white to pink, in clusters. Fruit round , blue to black. Seed spread by wind, water, and animals including birds.

Weeds of the Redlands - Easter Cassia

Easter Cassia

Senna pendula

Shrubs that may scramble up to 3m. Compound leaves. Leaflet tips rounded, pods long and cylindrical. Flowers showy yellow. Fruit a green pod, drying with age. Seed to 0.5cm across, very long lived. Seeds spread by birds, insects, gravity and humans.

Weeds of the Redlands - Wild Tobacco

Wild Tobacco

Solanum mauritianum

Woody shrub to 4m.  Trunk greyish green, around 15cm in width. Leaves yellowish green above and paler below, lance-shaped up to 30cm long and 10cm wide, covered in hairs.  Flowers lavendar to blue. Fruits small, round, approx. 10-15mm wide, greenish yellow when ripe, light brown or yellowish seeds.  Spread by wind, water and animals.

Weeds of the Redlands - Shrubs - Yellow Bells

Yellow Bells

Tecoma stans

Shrub or small tree to 7m. Leaves compound, up to 13 leaflets. Leaflets to 10cm long, pointed, toothed edges. Flowers showy, yellow, reddish lines in throat, spring/summer. Fruit a long narrow capsule to 22cm, splits when mature to release seeds. Seeds winged, about 1.5cm long, numerous. Mainly spread by wind, water and humans.